This page is a dictionary of terms, projects, people and organizations involved within the crypto space. Reference links and explanation videos are added where applicable. New content always being added.
Alt-Coin – Slang for any cryptocurrency and token that is not bitcoin.
AML – An acronym for “Anti-Money Laundering.” AML regulations were originally designed around traditional centralized banking systems, and have since needed to adapt to account for Bitcoin and other cryptocurrency transactions. This is often referenced together with KYC (Know Your Customer.)
ASIC – Application Specific Integrated Circuit – A piece of mining equipment that has circuitry created from scratch to do only one thing: mine a crypto currencies running on a specific software algorithm. Where as a processing chip of graphics card is engineered to run a multitude of functions (which allow for mining multiple crypto currency algorithms,) ASICs are specialized to solve just one. This allows for a dramatic focus of computational power that CPUs and GPUs are not capable of, which results in an unbelievably high hash rate (attempts at solving the algorithm-per-second.) The use of ASIC miners means that mining difficulty has greatly increased, making graphics cards too weak to earn anything worthwhile, and the players with deep pocket$ can afford to keep up in the “arms race” in mining capacity.
ASIC-Resistant – A software mining algorithm that adds extra computational steps that makes it so difficult for an ASIC mining chipset to process, it is not worth attempting to develop an ASIC miner to solve. Two good examples of ASIC-resistant cryptos is Vertcoin and Bitcoin Gold.
Atomic Swap – Video- Blockgeeks
Bag Holder – Anyone with a large position who is holding them to profit from price appreciation.
Bakkt – (See also InterContinental Exchange, the owner of the New York Stock Exchange – NYSE) A digital asset platform that will enable institutional money to invest in cryptocurrencies, taking “physical” delivery (ie, investors will be purchasing/selling actual cryptos, not a paper contract.)
Background via Blockonomi
Headlines via Cointelegraph
Basic Attention Token (BAT) – The Basic Attention Token (BAT) is a token created by Brave Software used to reward content producers via the Brave Browser. The Brave Browser blocks unwanted ads and helps protect user online data.
BIP32 – A mnemonic backup phrase used for cryptocurrency wallets (also referred to as the seed phrase.) This can be used to recover a wallet in the case of a operating system failure or if someone wants to “move” a wallet to a new device. Entering the seed phrase will recover the blockchain information related to the coin or coins tied to the wallet. (BIP = Bitcoin Improvement Proposal)
Bitcoin – The first decentralized, peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that utilized blockchain technology. Currently considered the granddaddy of cryptos.
Bitcoin Cash – A fork from the bitcoin blockchain, it uses the same SHA256 mining algorythm, but differs in that the block size is 8mb (megabytes) in size versus BTC’s 1mb.
Bitcoin Gold – Bitcoin gold is a coin forked off of Bitcoin. It is designed to be more decentralized than bitcoin for miners by being ASIC-resistant and can only be mined using GPUs.
Bitconnect – A lending platform that paid out to participants using a ponzi-scheme structure. Operated 2016 to March 2018 (the token still exists on Coinmarketcap as of July 2018.) See this YouTube scams playlist.
Bitfinex – A centralized crypto exchange. It draws much criticism of its solvency and it ties with Tether (one of the earliest stable coins.) Video info, no particular order: Ready Set Crypto! Crypto Lark The Crypto Investor
Bittrex – Bittrex is one of the major cryptocurrency exchanges based in the United States. It facilitates trading of more than 190 different cryptocurrencies.
Bitpetite – A HYIP that structured itself to appear that payouts to participants came from fees from crypto tumbling (anonymizing transactions.) Operated July 2017 to November 2017. See this YouTube scams playlist.
Block – The block is where unalterable data from the network is stored, mainly the data for transactions, ie, the pages of the blockchain ledger.
Blockchain – a ledger of transactions that is recorded sequentially.
Block – Blocks are where unalterable data from the network is stored, mainly the data for transactions.
Block Reward – The block reward is the prize miners receive for successfully validating a new block and adding it to the chain.
Changpeng Zhao – (Via Everipedia) “A blockchain technology and cryptocurrency entrepreneur based out of Malta. He is best known for his current role as the CEO and Founder of Binance, the world’s largest cryptocurrency exchange. He was previously the CTO of the cryptocurrency exchange, OKCoin.
Charlie Lee – Founder of Litecoin.
Cold Storage – Cold storage refers to a method of storing a reserve of cryptocurrency offline. Cold storage eliminates the risk of theft from hackers, though it does carry other risks. Some of most popular cold storage methods include:
- USB drive or other digital data storage medium kept in a secure physical location
- A piece of paper
- On a bearer item such as a physical coin
- A specially designed offline cryptocurrency hardware wallet, such as Ledger Nano
Cold Wallet –
Confirmation – Confirmation refers to the process of verifying a transaction on the blockchain. When a new block is created and added to the blockchain, it records new transactions that have occurred since the last block was created. A transaction that is verified and recorded in a block has been confirmed.
Control Finance – A well-engineer HYIP that structured itself to appear that payouts to participants came from profits from the trading of crypto. Operated June 2017 to August 2017.
Cross-Chain Protocol –
Crypto Space – What this is a part of. The world of cryptocurrencies and blockchain tech.
Crypt0 – Omar Bahm! who runs a great informative YouTube channel
Crypto Lark – A Kiwi from New Zealand who looks at lots of alt coins with an Asian-bend in perspective
Dapp – Decentralized APPlication. Application programs that are created for use on decentralized platforms (like ethereum, Lisk, Tron, EOS, Cardano, etc.)
Video – Description Crypto Candor
DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization) –
DASH – Dash is a cryptocurrency that emphasizes transaction speed and maintains a two-tier architecture with miners and “masternodes” that allow the Dash network to perform near-instant transactions. Dash network functions are handled in two different ways: the creation of new blocks is handled by Dash miners, while the second tier of the Dash network is a set of “masternodes” which perform “PrivateSend” and “InstantSend” transactions. The masternodes also manage governance functions, which include voting on proposals for spending the funds held in reserve.
Decentralized Blockchain –
Decentralized Network – Video
Digibyte – Video – Crypto Beadles Jan ’19 update
Digital Currency Group – Started by Barry Silbert, it funds and owns numerous projects and companies involved with cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology. It is owned by Nasdaq, Bain Capital Ventures, Transamerica Ventures, FirstMark Capital, MasterCard, New York Life (and more, which I’m trying to verify.) The most prominent holding is Coinbase, currently the world’s largest on-boarding platform for buying (and selling) cryptos for fiat currencies. It is important to note what moves and ventures they engage in, because they always act first and foremost in the interest of what will make them the most money long-term, which means they make strategic moves to capitalize on trends (example- Coinbase Commerce the payment platform, setting up accounts for only accredited investors, and setting up an asset-backed crypto index fund.)
They are the biggest outlet that traditional finance is getting involved with cryptos. Again, pay close attention to what they do.
DYOR – Do Your Own Research. The idea that you need to take personal responsibility to educate yourself when it comes to investments, ideas, opinions and viewpoints, versus outsourcing it to a third party.
ERC-20 – ERC-20 is the Ethereum token standard used for Ethereum smart contracts. Videos – Pillar Project
Ethereum – Decentalized platform that allows for the execution of Decentralized Applications (DApps.) Videos – 99Bitcoins
(Chart information is from Sept. 2018)
Faucet – Technically, a “crypto faucet.” The original concept was to pay out small “drips” of bitcoin, back in the early days when it was cheap, with the purpose of introducing people to decentralized cryptocurrencies (specifically bitcoin.) Over time, and with the increase in prices, faucet sites have evolved to web pages filled with ads that pay the owner of the site based on the number of eyeballs that go to the site and clicks on ads. In this format, a micro amount of cryptocurrency is paid out as incentive to get people to come to the site (usually a fraction of a penny per claim.) The claims are usually spaced out, most frequently limited to between once every five minutes to one hour.
You can get an overview of several of the more reputable ones with this YouTube playlist. [disclosure – they are videos that I made, with referral links included.]
Fifty-One Percent Attack (51% Attack) – Video – Bitcoin for Beginners
Fork – (See also: Hard Fork, Soft Fork) What happens when a community of a crypto token makes a change to the software code of the crypto blockchain (video with Andreas Antonopoulos)
Fungability – Boiled down, the exchangability of an item. In cryptocurrencies, fungability is broken down into fungible and non-fungible assets.
- For fungable, the best way to think of it is dollar bills. A one dollar bill that you own is exchangeable with any other dollar bill in existence.
- For non-fungable, the best way to think of it is a comic book. Each comic book you own is unique in that even though there are other comic books out there, yours is unique by the copy, the issue, and the quality grade. If you try and exchange your copy with another one, it’s not going to be a like-for-like exchange.
Gemini – A cryptocurrency exchange based in New York, founded by the Winklevoss twins.
Genesis Block – The first block mined on a new blockchain. The bitcoin genesis block is the first public, decentralized block created.
GPU – Graphics card. Often used for Proof of Work crypto mining due to its dedicated hardware, it is the mid-range option for mining that is more efficient than a CPU, but less power than an ASIC miner. GPUs can be considered
Hard Fork –
Hash Rate – The hashrate is the measuring unit for the processing speed of a given cryptocurrency network. The higher the hashrate, the faster the cryptocurrency network will complete transactions and other operations.
HODL – Hold of For Dear Life, though it’s origins have it as a mis-spelling.
Honeyminer – Simplified one-click mining software that auto-detects your computer processor and graphics card(s) and automatically mines the most profitable coins, paying out all proceeds to miners in bitcoin. Very good for people new to mining. More Info Here
Hot Wallet – A hot wallet is a method of keeping a cryptocurrency reserve or wallet connected to the internet. Versus an off-line cold wallet, the risk with using a hot wallet is that it is more vulnerable to hackers and other malevolent online actors.
Howey Test – Based on the 1946 U.S. Supreme Court ruling of SEC v. W.J. Howey Co., the Howey test provides the precedence to determine what a security is.
Via BitTrust on Medium:
In June 1946 the Howey Company, a Floridian citrus farm cultivating vast acres of the state’s southern Lake County, decided to lease half of its property to “finance an additional development.” It wasn’t the first time an entrepreneurial farmer offered a tract of land as an investment contract. But it would be more consequential than any other, resulting in a landmark court-case. Indeed, the ruling of SEC v. Howey Co.may determine the fate of regulating blockchain tokens.
The Howey case challenged the prevailing view of what a security is and isn’t. When the Howey Co. sold several hundred acres of land to several businessmen “attracted by the expectation of substantial profits,” they began a specific enterprise between two entities: one party that provides the work (farming) while the other supplies the capital (via a lease contract). Thus, while “lacking the knowledge, skill, and equipment necessary for the care and cultivation of citrus trees,” these purchasers became the nominal landowners thanks to the shuffle of papers and stroke of a pen.
In signing a decade-long service contract these men effectively became speculators–the land was the vehicle for investment. “With the expectation that they would earn a profit solely through the efforts of the promoter or of someone other than themselves,” the purchasers of Howey’s citrus-laced acres entered the hazy territory of investment contracts. This is where the complex legal process begins.
By failing to register these transactions to the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), a requirement codified in the 1933 Securities Act, Howey Co. broke federal law. The SEC filed an injunction to prevent the selling of these contracts but was subsequently blocked by an appeal from the US District Court for the Southern District of Florida. The case went to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals where it was affirmed, removing the injunction over Howey’s contracts. However, in May 1946 the US Supreme Court granted certiorari (where an upper court hears a case first tried in a lower one) and soon upheld the SEC’s order–that Howey’s contracts were investment contracts and must be regulated as one. Justice Murphy, delivering the opinion of the Court, concluded that:
“The transactions in this case clearly involve investment contracts, as so defined. The respondent companies are offering something more than fee simple interests in land, something different from a farm or orchard coupled with management services. They are offering an opportunity to contribute money and to share in the profits of a large citrus fruit enterprise managed and partly owned by respondents…Thus, all the elements of a profit-seeking business venture are present here.”
HYIP – High Yield Investment Program. An investment scam that operates using the ponzi scheme model. The sites themselves are often masked as “cloud mining,” “guaranteed returns,” or sometimes as “lending platforms.” They always offer referral commissions to incentivize people to bring in new money (to pay the “earnings” of the old money.) Often they register their company in the UK (very easy to do.) Some good examples of HYIPs are Control Finance and Bitpetite.
Hyperledger – A collaboration project hosted by the Linux Foundation that includes a consortium of large corporation that seeks to develop cross-industry block chain technology.
Initial Coin Offering – An initial coin offering (ICO) involves selling a newly created cryptocurrency or token to raise money for a startup, software project, or blockchain network. Tokens are usually purchased directly from the company raising the funds, using a cryptocurrency such as bitcoin or ethereum.
InterContinental Exchange (ICE) –
Jihan Wu – Co-founder of the crypto mining equipment giant Bitmain.
Kenn Bosak – The one and only. I consider him to be the Lounge Lizard of the crypto space. Enthusiast and advocate. Has a YouTube channel.
KYC – KYC is an acronym that stands for “Know Your Customer” or “Know Your Client”. KYC is used to refer to the methods a business deploys to verify and record the identity of its clients. Anti-money laundering regulations that govern financial transactions are sometimes known as KYC laws. KYC laws are often referenced together with AML (Anti-Money Laundering)
Lending Platform – High Risk! A lending platform is a money-making scheme whereby in return for “loaning” crypto tokens for a set period of time (meaning your investment is “locked” and cannot be cashed out,) you are paid a certain amount of revenue to your account over that period of time. This form of investing is dubious because it relies on referrals for promotion and bringing in new participants, the revenue streams advertised (often “trading bots,” which do, in fact, exist) are questionable, plus there are no legal parameters or recourse in place should the platform be shut down and investors robbed of their funds. Essentially, the revenue payouts are in a ponzi structure.
Litecoin – A cryptocurrency based off the same code as bitcoin. Created in 2014, its characteristics are that it has xx block times, runs on the xx algorithm (PProo of Work validation,) and as creator Charlie Lee phrased it, is “the silver to bitcoin’s gold.”
Lightning Network – A transaction platform (similar in utility like a credit card network,) that enables crypto currencies transactions to occur off-chain, allowing and bypasses blockchains, greatly speeding up transaction times. Videos: 99BitCoins | Simply Explained – Savjee | Crypto Visualized | Crypto Lark
Monero – A privacy coin that utilizes ring signatures to hide the path of transfer from sender to receiver. Ring signatures blend together an individual user’s account keys with public keys from the blockchain, resulting in a range of possible signers. This prevents anyone analyzing the blockchain from discovering the identity of the parties in a given transaction.
Minergate – One of the first one-click miners, it utilizes a graphical interface to mine several different software algorithms. It’s decent software if you are looking to mine and accumulate specific coins. More info here.
Mining – Slang term for Proof of Work. (IE, by validating transactions on a network using energy-intensive hardware, new cryptos are earned as a reward. The probability of validating a transaction is based on the total computation power of the equipment being used.)
Minting – Slang term for Proof of Stake. (IE, validating transactions on a network using a digital wallet on an energy-efficient device, new cryptos are earned as a reward. The probability of validating a transaction is proportionate to the amount of coins or tokens held in the wallet in relation to the total circulating supply.)
Mt. Gox – In the early teens, Mt. Gox was a Japan-based bitcoin exchange that at its height accounted for 70% of all bitcoin trading volume. In February of 2014, the exchange shut down operations without any prior notification.
SEE ALSO: THE MT. GOX PAGE
Multi-Sig – Short for multi-signature. A bitcoin address which is controlled collectively by two or more people. The funds can be released from the address only when the agreed number of signatures is reached (e.g. you need 2 out of 3 signatures to release funds).
NEO – Platform
Network Fee – A network fee is a fixed amount of cryptocurrency a user must pay to transfer an amount via the blockchain. Network fees go to the miners who verify the transactions. Anytime you buy or sell a cryptocurrency, you must pay a network fee. Higher network fees generally mean faster transaction speeds as they are given priority over transactions with lower fees.
Non-Fungable Asset (see Fungability)
Ontology – Cross-chain protocol project that runs on the NEO platform.
Over-The-Counter (OTC) Purchases – Crypto transactions that take place between two parties on private platforms and are usually based on a mutually-agreed upon price. Since these transactions do not take places on the public exchanges, they do not affect the overall price of the given crypto. Large-scale mining operations often sell mined coins using OTC platforms.
Story via Bloomberg: Institutional Investors Are Using Back Door for Crypto Buys
Ox – A decentralized Ethereum token swapping protocol on which decentralized exchanges can be built. Video- Bitcoin for Beginners
Peer To Peer – Video – Lisk Academy
Proof of Stake – Proof of Stake (PoS) is a means of validating transactions on a network, with the probability of solving the transaction and (being paid in with newly created tokens) being based more on the number of tokens someone is holding in their crypto wallet than on the overall computational power someone has committed (see Proof of Work.)
Private Key – A private key is a cryptographic code made up of 51 alphanumeric characters. A private key allows its owner to access his/her cryptocurrency assets and gives its owner unique protection from theft and unauthorized access to funds. A private key is one half of a key pair. The other half is the public key (or address). Funds can be deposited with knowledge of the public key, but withdrawn only with access to the private key. Description by Bitcoin Wiki
Proof of Work –
Public Key – The public key is the known identity of a cryptocurrency reserve or wallet. It serves as an address known to the public, and allows for the deposit of funds into the wallet. A public key is also one half of a key pair. The other half is the private key, known only to its owner. You may better understand the key pair using this analogy: the public key is like a mailbox, and the private key is like the key that opens the mailbox.
Pump-and-dump – a practice of deliberately driving the price of something up in order to generate bandwagon buying (or FOMO, Fear of Missing Out.) This drives the price up even further, allowing the pumpers who initiated the movement to sell and close out their positions before the buying momentum ceases and people start to sell to take a quick profit. The movement in prices are quick rises followed by often rapid falls (though the decline is not always rapid.) People who bandwagon buy are often stuck in positions where they bought high and are now holding on to the asset at a price lower than what they paid.
Qtum – A blockchain technology that bridges Ethereum’s smart contracts on top of Bitcoin’s blockchain while using proof of stake for verification. By doing so, the aim is to increase the range and interoperability of smart contract applications, as well as allow for implement tools, templates, and other plug-and-play smart contract options to make it easier to build and execute smart contracts.
Roger Ver –
Ring Signature – a software protocol used in in the privacy coin Monero to effectively erase the trail of the sender.
Satoshi – A satoshi is one hundred millionth of a bitcoin. Each bitcoin can be divided into fractions up to 8 digits long. That means 1 bitcoin can be divided into a maximum of 100,000,000 subunits. Each 0.00000001 of a bitcoin is called a satoshi. This is the smallest possible fraction of a bitcoin. Satoshi is named for the original designer of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto.
Satoshi Nakamodo – The alias of a person or team of people that devised the concept of decentralized blockchain technology. The whitepaper that describes the technology can be read HERE.
Security Token – Pillar Project
Smart Contract – A Smart Contract is a contract recorded in computer language rather than in legal language. A smart contract can be used to set out the parameters of a legally-binding agreement in a transparent way to minimizes conflict, while avoiding the involvement of a lawyer. Smart contracts are stored and replicated on the blockchain and enforced by the network of computers that run the blockchain. Blockgeeks – Everipedia – A good primer video is HERE
Segregated Witness (SegWit) – SegWit is a soft fork that changed the rules of the transaction format used in the Bitcoin blockchain and increased the block size limit. SegWit solved the problem by stripping off the signature from the public address of the sender in a transaction and moving it to a structure towards the end of the transaction. Blockgeeks – Andreas Antonopoulis Video
Soft Fork – (See also Fork)
Stable Coins – A cryptocurrency that in theory is supposed to be backed 1-to-1 by US Dollars or other sovereign fiat currency. The utility of it is that you can trade out of a crypto coin and into stable coin during downward market movements as a means/strategy to maintain value. Another way to think about it is that it acts like a money market fund that maintains its $1.00-per-share value (except that stable coins don’t pay interest.) Video background: 99Bitcoins
One of the big controversies surrounding stable coins is verification of assets backing the coins issued. The most visible perpetrator of this would be Tether. As of October 2018, the only stable coin to have its backing assets audited and verified is the stable coin launched by the Winklevoss twins for the Gemini exchange.
Stellar Lumens – A fork of XRP, that is marketed and used to facilitate cross-border settlements, in a manner similar to XRP. As the co-founder of Ripple (who left that Ripple to start Stellar) describes it, Stellar is what XRP should be (in terms of the software and functionality.)
Trading Bot – a software program that executes trades on exchanges in order to extract small gains off each trade. The aggregate earnings are what are often offered with trading programs, such as
Tether – One of the earliest stable coins. There is much criticism over the lack of transparency. Here’s a good, in-depth breakdown by Blockgeeks. Video background: Crypto Lark 1 | Crypto Lark 2 | The Crypto Investor | Omar Bham Dec 2018 Update
Trace Meyer –
Trading Pair – A trading pair entails a trade between two different kinds of currency. For example, a Bitcoin-Dash trading pair would mean buying bitcoin with dash or selling dash for bitcoin. Most all the crypto exchanges are have bitcoin pairings, while many also offer various pairings.
Tron – Smartcontract platform. Video background: Hashosi |
Utility Token –Utility Tokens vs Security Tokens
Vertcoin – is an open-source cryptocurrency created in January 2014 that focuses on decentralization. Vertcoin uses a Proof-of-Work (PoW) mechanism to issue new coins and incentivize miners to secure the network and validate transactions. Vertcoin has hard forked twice in order to reject specially designed hardware known as ASICs as well as CPU botnets from contributing to the peer-to-peer Vertcoin network and allowing consumer grade hardware such as GPUs more incentive to secure the network. (From Cryptocurrency Wiki)
Website | CoinGecko (prices) | Twitter | Facebook | Github | Soundcloud | YouTube | Wikipedia | Instagram | Discord | Telegram | Twitch | Medium | Reddit | BitcoinTalk Forum | Mining Pools | Steemit |
Westland Storage – A HYIP who’s gimmick was to appear that a real-world storage company based in Michigan had ventured into the cryptocurrency world by investing in real estate and paying out guaranteed profits from the alleged proceeds of rent payments from properties, similar to REITs (Real Estate Investment Trusts, which are regulated securities traded in traditional stock markets.) Existed from May/June 2018- ?? As of 8/16/2018, the operation was still being run, and the volume of advertising on gambling and faucet sites was reaching its peak.
Whale – A whale is a cryptocurrency trader with significant financial resources. Whales are major players in the market, and can even affect the exchange rate of a cryptocurrency by buying or selling a large amount of coins.
White Paper – The technical document that describes a project’s goals from the technical, financial and commercial perspectives. Here’s a great breakdown by All Crypto Whitepapers
Xylophone – A word often used for lack of having any other words that start with the letter “x”.
ZCash – A privacy coin. It is also popular with miners, though often noted, 20% of mining rewards go to the founders.
Zen Cash – Privacy coin.
zk Snarks – A software protocol used in the privacy coin Zencash and Zcash.
Got any suggestions, or links to videos or other websites that would enhance the quality of this page?
Miscellaneous Notes and Tools
to get started with cryptos
Follow Tiny Crypto Blog on Twitter @tinycryptoblog
You can also follow new posts on Facebook
Use the Brave browser and block unwanted ads and decide which websites YOU want to support! https://brave.com/tin140
Looking to start purchasing cryptos? Open an account at Coinbase, and you’ll receive $10 in free bitcoin for your first purchase of $100 or more. Link HERE
Binance is a great exchange to buy and sell cryptos. More Info Here
Are you new to cryptos and want an easy way to mine them? The easiest way to get started is to use the Honeyminer. More Info Here
If you’re a little more technical, Minergate is a good option as well. More Info Here
Need a good, basic crypto wallet? Download the Exodus wallet
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